Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisic ing elit, sed do eiusm
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisic ing elit, sed do eiusm
Showing posts with label Shipping. Show all posts

The role of “Dry Port” in the intermodal maritime transportation network

After 1970 onward, Container shipping or Containerization has revolutionized the mode of maritime freight transportation of the world during the last 40 to 50 years. The dynamics of growth made it possible to ensure supply of goods from shipper’s door to consignee’s door at a cheaper rate, faster speed and more secured way. The prime objective is to provide more exclusive services to the customer by combining rail-road-sea i.e. door to door instead of port to port services.
The pace of continuous growth in the overall environment of world trade and technology, has created rationale for building more container ships of larger capacity, improvement of cargo handling operation in pursuit of greater efficiency, reorient the marketing of port services for strategic positioning within competitive supply chains and upgrading of intermodal network within the hinterland of the economy  to meet growing challenges. But the unabated growth of international trade, poses following major threats for container port to grow further:
*     Port unable to develop additional transport corridors and associated infrastructure to facilitate access to port due to limitation of space.
*     Non-availability of sufficient container storage space within the port due to shortage of physical space, as most of ports are located within urban or suburban areas. Moreover land acquisition adjacent to port area at extremely high cost does not seem to be viable economically.
Experts are of opinion that the limitation of further expansion of capacity within the existing setup of seaport can be solved by the successful implementation of “Dry Port” concept. The Dry port will take over the additional burden of container handling of both exports and imports including other related off dock activities such as arrangement of custom clearance, warehouse facility, storage, staffing/stripping of cargo from container, transfer/transshipment of cargo as per requirement of shipper/consignee through an integrated transport link with the service port. Dry port is a major component of intermodal transportation network. It integrates the intermodal system from interior part of the country as load centre. As a result, economic activities centering Dry port/Inland port take place in the field of production and distribution of goods within the country which ultimately boost up economic growth & upgrade the intermodal transportation system.
Various interchangeable terms are used to refer to dry ports viz inland ports, inland container depots, freight terminals, freight village, container freight station etc in the literature. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) proposed the following working definition of dry ports during a regional meeting on dry ports in Asia
“A dry port provides services for the handling and temporary storage of containers, and general and/or bulk cargoes that enter or leave the dry port by any mode of transport, including roads, railways, inland waterways or airports. Full customs-related services and other related services, such as essential inspections for cargo export and import, should be put in place in a dry port whenever possible”.
Development of Dry port/Freight station largely depends on the existing policies, rules and regulation through which the government of a country regulates them. Again Dry port policies are linked with different sectoral policies which are dealt with by Central, Provincial and Local government authorities. Sectoral policies are:
*     Transport and Trade Facilitation policy
*     Infrastructure policy
*     Transport or Multimodal transport policy
*     Logistics policy
*     Port policy
*     Investment policy
*     Environmental policy
*     Land policy
Therefore proper & healthy coordination among various sectors and different tiers of government machinery is essential to facilitate the development of Dry port. It is very crucial to decide where the Dry port is to be set up.  The following factors/criteria deserve special attention for selecting the location: Proximity to seaports, linkage to other modes of transport, cost of development, cost of operation & transport, potential for modal shift, environmental concern, potential for attracting manufacturing & distribution facilities, stimulus for regional economic development, possibility to set up special economic & free trade zones, inland or state capital, existing and potential agricultural & industrial centers, major intersections of railways, highways & inland waterways and at airports.
In the development of dry port, shift in mode of connection from truck to railways between seaports to dry ports, will bring positive impact on environment in terms of reduction of CO2 emissions and other pollutants produced by long-distance hauling. This is proved by one empirical study made on the implementation of Dry port concept in Sweden. The results of the study highlights the fact that replacement of truck by railways in the freight transportation from seaports to dry port, resulted in reduction of CO2 emissions by 25% & also minimized port congestion.

At present the development of dry ports in Asian countries are at different stages in respect of their functioning as a full-fledged dry port. Now I shall try to project specifically outcome of case studies regarding the development and operation of dry ports in Asia.
To accelerate the pace of industrialization and also to encourage investment in the interior part of the country, China has taken ambitious plan to develop18 large inland container rail transfer and logistics distribution centers. The operation of these large inland dry ports will be looked after by the government organization named ‘China United International Rail Container Co, Ltd established by Ministry of Railways in 2007.
Out of above 18 units, the Shijiazhuang dry port, with a design capacity of 205,000 TEU per year, is one of the largest dry ports in China. This dry port has both rail and road access, customs inspection & quarantine facility. It has direct link with Tianjin seaport. It also acts as a feeder port.
Alashankou is the second largest border freight station in China in terms of movement of cargo volume. The port is connected with Dostyk freight station in Kazakhstan. It has the capacity to handle all types of cargo such as containers, break-bulk, oil etc. On average, this dry port handles about 20 freight trains per day. The volume of containers handled by Alashankou dry port has shown growth of 36% between 2006 and 2007.
An international free trade economic zone (FTEZ) is being established in Horgos, located near the border between China and Kazakhstan. It aims at attracting major manufacturing factories to be set up at this place. A logistic center is also going to be constructed within FTEZ. Currently cross country trade is conducted between Horgos & Kazakhstan by using road transportation. Around 75 – 100 trucks cross the border each day from China to Kazakhstan and similar number of trucks travel from Kazakhstan to China. In order to improve the rail freight efficiency, China has been running double-stack container train services to and from the main coastal ports to the selected routes, using new specialized wagons and powerful locomotives.
Dry port development in India
India has an extensive network of 59 ICDs, out of which 49 units are involved with the transportation of export & import. These inland dry ports provide services related to custom clearance, warehousing, container storage, stuffing/striping of container cargo, repair of container etc. Terminals are linked by rail services provided by Indian railway network. The operation of ICDs is handled by Container Corporation of India, Ltd. (CONCOR) – a subsidiary of Indian Railway. The volume of containers handled by CONCOR is continuously increasing. The overall performance of ICDs shows an upward increase of volume from 60% in 1996/97 to 81% in 2008/9.
Another important dry port of North India is the Tughlakabad ICD, located 17km to the southwest of Delhi. It is well linked with the Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports through the Delhi-Mumbai arterial trunk corridor and national highways. It has a handling capacity of 400,000 TEU per year. The ICD is equipped with completely modern facilities that include EDI, export & import warehouses, radio-frequency identification container tracking and custom clearance. In 2009/10, Tughlakabad ICD handled 413,384 TEU. It is worthwhile to mention that India is implementing a project with an investment cost US$10 billion under Japanese government assistance, in order to develop Mumbai-Delhi freight corridor. This will help develop basic infrastructural facility for further growth of Dry ports in India.

 Dry port development in the Republic of Korea
The rapid growth of exports and imports of Korean economy could not be accommodated by the relatively slower expansion of port facility which created deadlock in handling additional flow of container traffic with existing facilities within the port. The leading gateway ports such as Busan, Gwangyang & Inchon, handling lion’s share of foreign trade, faced the above problem tremendously which needed an immediate solution. To combat this problem, Korean Government in 1980, adopted a policy on priority basis to develop inland logistics centers.
The “Uiwang ICD is the largest dry port in Korea, having a capacity of 1.3 million TEU and land area of 417.000 m2. The ICD is located 25km from Seoul and was developed by public- private partnership (PPP) in 1993. The Korean Railroad Company and private transportation companies have invested in the Uiwang ICD. It is built up with all necessary functionalities to meet the requirements of trade. It utilizes rail capacity of 36 trains per day along with road transportation. The capacity utilization shows that the road mode and rail mode share of throughput handled by the ICD was approximately 75% and 25% respectively.
The Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) is the regulatory authority responsible for the planning, construction and management of dry ports in the Republic of Korea. The Public and Private Infrastructure Investment Management Center (PIMAC) is another regulatory body which  reviews large-scale infrastructure project proposals submitted by private sector and determines whether the projects are consistent with government’s long-term plans & priorities. In short, government and PIMAC jointly supervise the development of dry ports under the existing government logistics policies and extend their supportive role.
Development of Dry port in Thailand
The Lat krabang ICD was developed by the State Railway of Thailand (SRT) and the operation started in 1996. It is located about 27km east of Bangkok and 118km north of ‘Laem Chabang’ port. The ICD utilizes both railway and road for freight transportation to Chabang port. Terminal operations are managed by six private-sector concessionaires who provide services related to cargo consolidation, distribution, warehousing, custom clearance and empty container storage. 
Thailand is giving priority to the development of dry ports in order to help shift the movement of freight from road-based transport to intermodal transport. The ICD has full electronic data interchange (EDI) link and already handled around 1.7 million TEU in 2008 which has surpassed the initial design capacity. The performance indicates continuous increase of volume of containers handled by Krabang ICD. Although it was primarily designed to put more emphasis on rail-based transport but targeted rail share could not be achieved due to limited rail link capacity. The rail mode share of the throughput handled by the ICD was about 25% in 2009 and thereby contributing to an overall reduction of congestion and emissions.

SRT is planning a future expansion of the Lat Krabang port facility in addition to the construction of new dry ports. The Government of Thailand is working to enhance the country’s logistics capabilities through the development of intermodal facilities in order to encourage a model shift from road transport to more environmentally friendly rail and water transport.
Dry port development in Nepal
The Birganj ICD was developed by Government of Nepal with the support of World Bank. Although the ICD was commissioned in July 2004 but the actual operation started after two years. After commissioning, the operational responsibility of ICD has been leased to the private sector. The ICD is connected with Raxaul railhead located near the border of India, with a rail link of about 12km. From Raxhaul railhead, the rail link is further extended to connect the Kolkata/Haldia ports of India. The distance to be covered upto Kolkata is about 926km by road and 704km by railway. The ICD provides facilities of a broad gauge railway yard with six full-length lines, a container stacking yard, a covered container freight station and automated system for customs data (ASYCUDA). Since majority portion of rail link is situated in India, so the Government of Nepal had to conclude rail service agreement with the Government of India for the smooth operation of their dry ports. It now handles containers, tank wagons for liquid cargoes and flat wagons for bilateral break-bulk cargo.
The Nepal Intermodal Transportation Development Board (NITDB), is the regulatory body with representatives from the public and private sectors, which supervises and regulates the overall activities of all ICDs in Nepal. Another government body named the Nepal International Transport Development Authority (NITDA) has been established to regulate operational issues like issuance of licenses for the development and management of dry ports, container freight stations and integrated customs points in the country.
There was sharp increase of volume of break-bulk and container cargo from 2004/5 to 2005/6 as bilateral trade through the dry port & use of covered wagons was allowed under new provisions of railway service agreement. The volume of container/break-bulk cargo dropped during 2009/10 due to global economic recession. Birgunj ICD handled 16928 TEU (equivalent to 406,272 MT3) and 237,104 MT cargoes during 2008/09. There are other dry ports in Nepal viz Biratnagar, Bhairahawa, and Kakarbhitta which are located near Indian border and Chinese border at Kodari.
The above detail analysis highlights the fact that the development of dry ports plays a significant role in the integration of intermodal transportation system, which led to the growth of international trade and development of a country. The scenario of development of dry port in Asian countries is very encouraging as reflected in the above case studies. For sustained growth of dry port and the integrated inter-modal infrastructure in Asia, it is essential that both Government and private sectors need to work together under close coordination.

The geographical setting, structure, governance and ownership of inland port system are the important factors to determine how to develop and integrate the inland port with the maritime port terminals. This is connected with port regionalization strategy which supports an extensive hinterland. In Western Europe, the establishment of inland terminals is at most advanced stage with close integration of port terminals with rail shuttles and barge services. Rail-based dry ports are found throughout Europe and same is often linked to the development of logistics zone. Europe is supporting the development the real pan-European rail services as one-stop basis. Rail terminals in Europe are mostly built and operated by large railway ventures. The largest rail facilities have bundles of 10 rail tracks with lengths of maximum 800m per track. Rail hubs are equipped to perform simultaneous batch exchanges (direct transshipment) through the use of rail-mounted gantry cranes that stretch over the rail bundles. Barge transport is taking up more prominent role in dealing with gateway traffic. Barge container transport has developed originally between Antwerp, Rotterdam, and the Rhine basin. In the last decade, it has also developed along the north-south axis between the Benelux and northern France. Antwerp and Rotterdam together handled nearly 5 million TEU of inland barge traffic during 2010. A growth in international trade has necessitated the setting of intermediary locations of inland ports in order to accommodate larger flows between ports and their hinterland. A large concentration of inland terminals has taken place around the Rhine/Scheldt delta which handled a total container throughput of 22 million TEU in 2010.

Since late 19th century, the development of continental railway system, has led to the growth of large number of inland terminals in NorthAmerica. The inland terminals were developed in a natural process which corresponded to large inland market areas within metropolitan zone and the same worked as regional manufacturing base and distribution system. With globalization and intermodalism two main categories of inland terminals have emerged in North America. The first category is related to where inland terminals are an extension of a maritime terminal located on one of the three major ranges load centers (Chicago or Mexico). The second category concerns inland terminals mainly connected to NAFTA trade and act as custom pre-clearance centers. The ‘Kansas City’ is considered to be the most advanced inland port venture in North America, as it combines intermodal rail facilities from four different rail operators, foreign trade zones and logistics parks at various locations through the metropolitan area. Compared to Europe, North American dry ports tend to be larger but covering much more substantial market area. It is an undeniable fact that setting of dry ports (inland ports) is a necessity for both Europe and North America, as the growth of maritime transportation and its economies of scale have placed pressures on the inland segment of freight distribution. Moreover since North America and Europe have large continental markets, they need to rely on the network of satellite terminals and load centers as a fundamental structure to support hinterland freight movements.

Dry port in operation
Dry port

Read more

Inclusion of a new built vessel into CMA CGM Fleet

It is a good news for the shipping industry as well as  all related stakeholder  that CMA CGM shipping line along with  two other parties are going to add a new container vessel of 10622 TEUs capacity named “The CMA CGM  LITANI” to its present fleet by the third quarter of 2016. This procurement would be the third vessel out of total procurement target of 28 series of vessels within the capacity from 9400 TEUs to 10900 TEUs. It is worthwhile to mention here that the 1st vessel of the series named “The CMA CGM DANUBE” was delivered on last June, 2014. The delivery of the 2nd vessel named “The CMA CGM LITANI” was accomplished on December 03 and sailed from Chinese shipyard on December 06, 2014 respectively.
This new-built container vessel has the following special features in its design & construction:
       The length of the ship is 300 meter and width is 48 meter.
       The ship has a reefer capacity of 1458 reefer plugs of 40 feet.
       The ship has an electronically controlled long stroke engine with an exhaust gas      bypass system offering the best in fuel consumption
       The ship has a twisted leading edge rudder with bulb
       The ship has a ballast water treatment system
       The ship is equipped with the latest environmental technologies which  significantly reduce its CO2 emissions
       The ship is designed to meet the technical constraints of the Strait of the Bosphorus
       The ship has a speed of 16 to 18 knots

The massive procurement target of series of vessels, has been undertaken by the joint collaboration between the Chinese shipyard NTS (New Times Shipbuilding, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China), CIMC group and the CMA CGM Group experts.
 Under contractual agreements between the three parties of the Group, it has been decided that the vessels will be deployed and operated in the name of a emblematic lines of the Group i.e. Bosphorus Express (BEX). The line will offer direct services to connect ports between Asia, Turkey and Black Sea. The route will cover port rotation calling ports viz Dalian, Tianjin, Kwangyang, Busan, Shanghai, Ningbo, Chiwan, Beirut, Izmir, Istambul, Constanza, Odessa, IIyichevsk, Istambul, Piraeus, Port Kelang and finally again Dalian in the westbound and eastbound voyages.
The Group has taken this joint venture in order to achieve sustainable development in the transportation of exports and imports in the above mentioned competitive route, in view of growing market demand and to ensure their role as a market leader in the region.

“TThe CMA CGM LITANI”(10622TEUs) enters into the CMA CGM fleet
The 2nd vessel the CMA CGM LITANI was delivered in China on December 03, 2014. 

Read more

Basic Documents needed in Liner Shipping

Basic documents needed in liner shipping

Export and import shipment through liner shipping has undergone tremendous improvements over the past few decades due to introduction of fully computer based online networking system, where port, custom, shipping line, ships agent, forwarders – all are working together under the same system. This modern system has simplified shipping documentation and guaranteed services to the customer with higher efficiency at faster speed. Since the pace of technological advancement is not same between the developed and developing countries, so we still find significant differences in documentation among those countries. However, we shall concentrate discussions on basic documents necessary for liner shipping. To effect export or import of any cargo, the following parties / institutions are involved :
a)      Importers
b)      Exporters
c)       Shipping line & their Agents
d)      Customs Authority
e)      Port Authority
f)       Freight Forwarders
g)      Stevedores or Cargo handling agents
h)      C&F Agent
If a  shipper wants to export some parcel to a foreign buyer through liner vessel, then what procedure he has to follow for arranging shipment and what type of documents he is required to submit to the shipping company?
Let us assume that a Bangladeshi Garments Factory ‘A’ located in Chittagong, wants to export consignment of 100 cbm Ready made garments (RMG) to a foreign buyer of French. How the owner of garments factory will proceed? The factory owner doesn’t have any knowledge about shipment procedure or direct link with any shipping line. There is nothing to be worried. The exporter will contact a local or an international freight forwarder for arranging shipment of said consignment. The freight forwarder is the right person who knows what to do. He has experience and professional knowledge to handle the matter in the most efficient way, so that the exporter does not suffer in anyway. That means the freight forwarder takes 100 per cent responsibility to arrange shipment of cargo  through contacting all relevant agency / institution involved in the system, on behalf of exporter/shipper. First of all, forwarder sends an e-mail message to a Shipping line highlighting type/quantity of cargo, port of loading & port of discharge, tentative shipment date etc and request shipping line to confirm booking/space. The shipping line thoroughly examines the offer. If it is found suitable, they confirm the booking and send an Export cargo shipping instruction form (ECSI) to forwarder to provide detail information of the consignment viz about the goods and their route to final destination, any transport requirements, custom information, information of cargo insurance, letter of authority from exporter, type of Bill of Lading shipper needs, and allocation of costs etc. On receipt of detail information regarding consignment, the shipping line enters all these information into their computer system and the system creates a draft B/L. This draft B/L is again sent to forwarder for final checking whether everything is in order. Meantime, shipping line releases no of containers required by forwarder for stuffing the cargo. The forwarder may take the containers to factory premise for loading or cargo may be brought to ICD for stuffing. Then all formalities of custom and port are done at container freight station (CFS). At the final stage, container is sealed and carried inside the port for loading on board the vessel under the supervision and instruction of shipping line. In the present assumed case, the exporter/forwarder wants to export their consignment of garments ex-Chittagong port to Marseilles port of French. The shipping line will arrange shipment of the consignment by feeder vessel calling at Chittagong port and transport same upto Singapore or Colombo port where the Mother vessel will arrive. Then said containers will be transshipped to the Mother vessel which is scheduled to call buyer’s destination port i.e Marseilles, France. At the loading point, forwarder receives system generated original sets of Bill of Ladings from shipping line on payment of freight & other costs as per mutually agreed terms. Then Forwarder on behalf of exporter (Garments factory owner), submits the original bills of lading to the bank of exporter alongwith other necessary documents as per instructions of Letter of Credit, in order to receive payment of invoice value of goods from buyer. In this way export of any consignment through liner shipping is done.
In order to ensure that export of a cargo is effected without any hassle from buyer’s side, it is absolutely necessary for exporter to guarantee following :
·         Cargo is packed correctly so that it arrives in good condition;
·         Cargo is labeled correctly to ensure that the goods are handled properly and arrive on time at the right place;
·         Cargo is documented correctly to meet government requirements of port of loading as well as rules & regulations of foreign government where cargo to be discharged.
·         Cargo is Insured against damage, loss, pilferage and delay.
  The Freight Forwarder plays a significant role to take care of above requirements of exporter. As such exporter has no option but to take the assistance of a forwarder for smooth and hassle free shipment. As regards packing, sometimes buyer specifies packing requirements for the cargo. In general, following guidelines are observed :
  •  Pack in strong containers, adequately sealed and filled when possible.
  • To provide proper bracing in the container, regardless of size, make sure the weight is evenly distributed.
  • Goods should be palletized and when possible containerized.
  • Packages and packing filler should be made of moisture-resistant material.
  • To avoid pilferage, avoid writing contents or brand names on packages. Other safeguards include using straps, seals, and shrink wrapping.
  • Observe any product-specific hazardous materials packing requirements.
Like packing, some specific labeling marks is also used in cartons & container to :
  • Meet shipping regulations;
  • Ensure proper handling;
  • Conceal the identity of the contents;
  • Help receivers identify shipments; and
  • Insure compliance with environmental and safety standards.
Basic Shipping Documents required
The following documents are commonly used in exporting; but which of them are necessary in a particular transaction depends on the requirements of concerned countries and it varies from country to country.
a)      Bill of Lading : It is a very important document in shipping transaction. A bill of lading is a contract between owner of goods and the carrier. This original shipper’s order bill of lading can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in transit. B/L is signed by the Master of the vessel or his agent on behalf of shipping line. It has undernoted attributes :
·         It is a contract of affreightment  between the carrier and the shipper/consignee.
·         It’s a receipt of cargo by the carrier.
·         It is a legitimate title of goods for the holder.
There are different kinds of B/L – Carrier B/L, House B/L, Charter party B/L, Ocean B/L or Combined Transport B/L etc.

a)      Commercial Invoice :  A commercial invoice is a bill for the goods from the seller to the buyer. These invoices are often used by governments to determine the true value of goods when assessing customs duties. Governments that use the commercial invoice to control imports will often specify its form, content, number of copies, language to be used, and other characteristics.
b)    Consular Invoice : It is a document that is required in some countries. It describes the shipment of goods and shows information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by the consular official of the foreign country stationed here, it is used by the country's customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.
c)    Certificate of Origin : It is a document that is required in certain nations. It is a signed statement as to the origin of the export item. Certificate of origin are usually signed through a semiofficial organization, such as a local chamber of commerce. A certificate may still be required even if the commercial invoice contains the information.
d)    Inspection certificate : It is required by some purchasers and countries in order to attest to the specifications of the goods shipped. This is usually performed by a third party and often obtained from independent testing organizations.
e)      Dock receipt and Warehouse receipt : These receipts are used to transfer accountability when the export item is moved by the domestic carrier to the port of embarkation and left with the ship line for export.
f)     Destination control statement : It appears on the commercial invoice, and ocean or air waybill of lading to notify the carrier and all foreign parties that the item can be exported only to certain destinations.
g)      Shipper’s Export Declaration(SED) : This document is used by the custom authority of the exporting country in order to exercise control over exports. SEDs are prepared by the exporter or the exporter's agent and delivered to the exporting carrier. The exporting carrier will present the required number of copies to the customs at the port of export. Often, the SED is prepared as a substitute document of the Shipper's Letter of Instructions.
h)      Export incense : It is government document that authorizes the export of specific goods in specific quantities to a particular destination. This document is generally required for all countries to export any commodity.
i)        Export packing list : This packing list shows the type of package, such as a box, crate, drum, or carton. It also shows the individual net, legal, tare, and gross weights and measurements for each package. In addition, Package markings are shown along with the shipper's and buyer's references. The list is used by the shipper or forwarding agent to determine the total shipment weight and volume of cargo being shipped. Custom officials use the list to check the cargo.
j)     Insurance certificate : This is a very important document in export shipment. This is used to assure the consignee that insurance will cover the loss of or damage to the cargo during transit. Insurance protects exporter’s interest, as there are risk factors like bad weather,  rough handling of cargo by carriers, and other common hazards which may cause damage to cargo. If the terms of sale make the exporter responsible for insurance, the exporter  is to take a policy to insure the cargo. If the terms of sale make the foreign buyer responsible, then the buyer has to obtain an insurance policy. Shipments by sea are covered by marine cargo insurance.
k)      Letter of Credit / Sales contract : This is a basic commercial document through which an international deal of sale is established between a Seller(exporter) and a buyer(importer). Detail terms & conditions highlighting value of goods, cost of freight and insurance, time limit for shipment, specifications of goods etc will be incorporated in the Letter of credit.
l)        Pre-shipment inspection survey : A thorough inspection of goods is to be carried out by renown surveyor before shipment in order to satisfy the buyer that the goods are fit to export in all respect. In case of import, similar documents will be required to ensure any transaction.
Apart from above shipping documents, Shipping line has to submit/declare following documents to various agencies, whenever vessel calls a port for loading / discharging operations.
1.       Inward Entry Application : Application addressed to Custom authority with a request to permit entry of the vessel in the port.
2.       Berthing Application to Port Health Office :  Application addressed to Port Health Officer, with a request to come on board after berthing  in order to complete inward formalities.
3.       Application to Immigration Officer: To provide landing permission for the officers and crew of the vessel.
4.       Store list book : Store list to be prepared in prescribed form & submit same to custom who will scrutiny the list with ship’s pantry.
5.       Ship’s Arrival Report : The arrival report is prepared by the Master of the vessel with details of vessel, cargo on board, ship’s stores which is submitted to Customs & Mercantile Marine Department.
6.       Load Line Distance Declaration : This is signed by Master of the vessel and same is submitted to Custom authority.
7.       Dangerous Drug Declaration : Declaration is given by the Master to Custom, stating that the vessel has not carried any dangerous drug.
8.       Deck Cargo Declaration : The certificate is issued by the Master regarding deck cargo carried on deck for submission to Custom.
9.       Final Entry Declaration : Agents of the vessel is  to submit this application to the Custom, after entrance of the vessel to the port enclosing all necessary papers regarding export cargo to be discharged.
10.   NOC from Mercantile marine & Shipping Master Office : NOC to be obtained from these two governments offices to sail from the port for outward voyage.
11.   NOC from Income Tax Authority : Before sailing from the port, vessel to obtain NOC from Tax authority regarding payment of duty on the freight earned or expected to be earned from exports carried and projected imports.
12.   Custom & Port Clearance : Port clearance is an important document which must be on board the vessel before sailing and this clearance has to be shown to the next port of call.
13.   Statement of facts : This document is prepared by shipping agent showing details of performances of vessel with regard to  discharging and loading of containers on daily basis. This SOF is important for Trump/Chartered vessel to count actual working days/hours so as to compare same with Charter party terms for calculating demurrage / dispatch.
Above documents are all related to ship. There are some important documents, which are related to cargo. Some of them are shown below :
1.       Wavier Certificate : As per existing flag protection law applicable in some countries, foreign vessel is required to obtain wavier certificate from Shipping Department to load cargo, in order to safeguard the legitimate share of exporting country. As per internationally accepted UNCTAD Code of Conduct, the National line is entitled to carry 40% of the total sea borne Export/Import cargo originating from their country, through it’s own flag carriers. If national flag carrier of exporting country fail to provide ship to carry some consignment, then the Third country operator can lift the cargo through obtaining wavier certificate.
2.       Mate Receipt: This is an acknowledgement receipt issued by the Master of the vessel, whenever loading of cargo or container is completed on board the vessel.
3.       Cargo Manifest or Freight Menifest : This is a summary statement of detail description of all the cargo loaded in the vessel. A manifest containing both cargo and financial details is known as Freight Manifest.
4.       Export General Manifest (EGM) : The Export General Manifest is prepared with the details of cargo and other relevant cargo related information on the basis of Bill of Lading and no freight information is incorporated. The EGM is prepared in the prescribed form and submitted to custom & port authority.
5.       Import General Manifest(IGM) : IGM includes details of import cargo to be discharged from the ship and the information are taken from Bill of lading IGM shows B/L number, description of cargo / container, cubic measurement /weight, whether freight pre-paid or payable at destination, the names / addresses of the consignee, details of Dangerous or Hazardous cargo etc. The IGM is submitted to the port and custom authority.
6.       Heavy Cargo / Long length Cargo List : A heavy cargo or heavy lift cargo means a cargo whose weight exceeds more than 35 tons. A heavy cargo is always odd size both in height as well as length and needs special arrangement at port for discharging. For this reason, the Master or the Agent has to maintain the list of such heavy or long length cargo, so that the cargo can be handled both on board the ship and at port under special arrangement at the time of discharging.
7.       Dangerous Cargo Declaration : Shipper has to declare with proper documentation regarding dangerous cargo before shipment of export of such cargo and also import of such cargo while on board before discharging at port.
8.       Delivery Order : Delivery order is issued in exchange of an original Bill of Lading ,usually at the port  of destination. On the basis of delivery order issued by the shipping line/agent, port authority deliver the goods to its holder or to a named party written on the bill of lading under the title ’Consignee’. The concerned agent before issuing delivery order also check whether custom has out passed Bill of Entry.
9.       Landing Tally : At the time of discharging container, tally is jointly maintained by port and shipping agent. When a container is discharged, the tally clerk records the information like container prefix, container number, seal number, container size/type/height in code, tare weight etc. This tally sheet is an important supporting document for shipper, if any damage is caused to the cargo at the time of unloading operation.
10.   Out Turn Report :  OTR is the final report on the total quantity of cargo (piece wise) landed under a Bill of Lading.
Article gives an idea about the various types of documentation required in liner shipping business for exports and imports. Please share this knowledge with me and offer your valuable comments if any.

Read more